Newsletter Volume 1, Number 3, October 2003

Comparative Democratization
Section 35 of the American Political Science Association

Volume 1, Number 3, October 2003

Table of Contents

1. Current Section Officers
2. Report from the Chair
3. Editor’s Note
4. Section News
5. News From Members
6. Fellowship and Grant Opportunities
7. Recent Conferences
8. Future Conferences
9. New Research


Chair (2003-2005)
Cynthia McClintock
Professor of Political Science
George Washington University

Vice-chair (2002-2004)
Nancy Bermeo
Professor of Politics
Princeton University

Secretary (2002-2004)
Harry W. Blair
Senior Research Scholar
Department of Political Science
Yale University

Treasurer (2003-2005)
William Reisinger
Professor of Political Science
University of Iowa

Newsletter Editor (ex officio)
Thomas W. Skladony
Senior Program Officer
International Forum for Democratic Studies
National Endowment for Democracy

I am honored that you have elected me chair of our Section. I am very much looking forward to working with you over the next two years to continue to promote the study of democratization among nations in all regions of the world. As we Section officers develop our initiatives, we need your input, and we heartily welcome your thoughts and recommendations. We are fortunate that we can build on the outstanding work of our 2001-2003 officers, in particular founding chair John Harbeson.

An immediate priority is the launching of our new Web site. A Section mission statement has been written and approved by our officers, and it will soon be posted on the Web site, along with this and past issues of the newsletter, the Section bylaws, award tributes, and other information related to our Section. We would also like to place syllabi for courses on both comparative democratization and on specific world regions on the Web site; please forward copies of these to Tom Skladony ( And please let Tom or me know of any other information you would like to have on our site.

We are also considering the possibility of a Section listserv, or even listservs. It is not now entirely clear to us, however, what kind of material members might like to see on a listserv. We know that all our e-mail boxes are very full. We welcome your input about the kind of listserv that you would find valuable. And we also welcome volunteers who would like to work on this initiative.

Even before one APSA meeting ends, planning for the next one begins. As you know, our 2004 program chair is Daniel Brumberg of Georgetown University, and the theme is “Illiberal Democracy and Liberal Autocracy.” There is no Section role more important and more arduous than program chair, and we are deeply grateful to Dan Brumberg for enthusiastically taking on this responsibility. We hope that many of you are already preparing your panel and paper proposals to meet APSA’s November 14 deadline.

As you have probably observed, most plenary speakers at APSA meetings focus on issues in American politics. We are now working to try to secure speakers outside the American-politics mainstream for our 2004 meetings. With the Human Rights Section, for example, we have initiated contacts with Mary Robinson (former United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights) and also with Fernando Enrique Cardoso (former president of Brazil). We hope you will contact us with your recommendations for plenary speakers in Chicago.

We have also formed our 2004 award committees. The chairs and members of both our best book and best article committees are listed below, and we extend in advance our appreciation for their work. I’m especially pleased that Richard Vengroff, who was the second candidate for 2003-2005 section chair, has graciously accepted the position as chair of the book award committee.

We also hope to make an award in Chicago for the best paper presented at the 2003 meeting. By virtue of his role as 2003 program chair, Michael McFaul selects the winner of this prize from among 2003 APSA papers nominated by panel chairs and discussants. To this end, please send your nomination to Michael at The deadline is December 1, 2003.

At the initiative of vice-chair Nancy Bermeo and with the assistance of Michael Foley, we have developed guidelines for a Best Field Work Prize. This is an exciting new prize that highlights our Section’s commitment to empirical research in one or more countries. It will be offered for the first time in 2004 or 2005.

Last but perhaps most important, I would like to thank our outgoing officers. 2003 Program Chair Michael McFaul constructed an outstanding set of panels for the Philadelphia meeting. Treasurer Leslie Anderson kept our books carefully, and Member-At-Large Carol Nechemias was helpful in manifold ways. We are especially grateful to John Harbeson for his spectacular achievement as cofounder and first chair. His commitment to field research-based scholarship in all regions of the world provided a firm intellectual foundation for our Section.

The idea for the Section originated in 1999 amid the deliberations of the Area Studies Liaison Group of APSA, of which John, Carol, and I were members. John worked with tremendous energy and enthusiasm to turn the idea into a reality. John’s good judgment and wisdom were essential to the development of our Section not only as one of the largest within APSA but also the one that is most keenly seeking to understand democratization processes around the world and to this end most vigorously activating global scholarly networks.

Cynthia McClintock

This is the first issue of our section’s newsletter to follow an annual business meeting, and thus it is appropriate that much of its content reports on the meeting itself. Not only did we mark the first change in section leadership and thank our outgoing officers, but we also inaugurated the section’s awards for best book and best journal article. I am pleased not only to list this year’s awardees but to present the gracious tributes to them that were presented by the chairs of the respective award committees in Philadelphia.

Elsewhere in this issue you will find an expanded section on News from Members plus our regular listing of recent and upcoming conferences, and of new books and journal articles on democracy. An additional attached file contains a listing of panels on democracy from the 2003 IPSA World Congress in Durban, South Africa, which contains many papers of interest but is much too long to be included in the newsletter itself.

Following discussions among section officers we have decided to publish three issues of this newsletter each academic year, in October, January, and May. We will also send members a listing of our section’s panels for the upcoming APSA meeting each June and August with a reminder to attend the annual business meeting and reception. And we will be happy to circulate appropriate notices, queries, and requests from section members on an ad hoc basis throughout the year.

On behalf of the International Forum for Democratic Studies it gives me great pleasure to thank the many section members who attended the Saturday evening reception in Philadelphia and who met the ten international scholars who participated in this year’s APSA meeting as part of the Network of Democracy Research Institutes. Many other members, I know, also had the opportunity to interact with these scholars at other times during the meeting. Thanks also to Michael Brintnall and the staff of the APSA for their help in facilitating the participation of democracy scholars from abroad, which we hope to continue in future years.

Finally, I am pleased to thank Melissa Aten and Shane Keane, fall semester interns at the International Forum, for their valuable assistance in preparing this issue of the newsletter.

Tom Skladony

Report on the Annual Business Meeting:
 The Comparative Democratization section business meeting was held on Saturday, August 30, 2003 as part of the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association in Philadelphia. Founding chair John Harbeson presided over the opening part of the meeting and then turned the proceedings over to Cynthia McClintock, the incoming chair. The meeting included tributes to outgoing officers and the recognition of newly elected officers, plus reports on section finances, the newsletter, and plans for the 2004 annual meeting. For a complete report see the attached file containing minutes of the meeting prepared by secretary Harry W. Blair.

Best Book and Best Article Awards: The Comparative Democratization section made the first of what will be annual awards for the best book and best article published in the preceeding year at the 2003 APSA meeting. (As the 2003 awards were our section’s first awards, they included publications from 2001 and 2002. Future awards will recognize works published in a single year, as explained below.)

The Best Book award committee (Gretchen Casper, Pennsylvania State University, chair; Michael Foley, The Catholic University of America; and Abdeslam Maghraoui, Princeton University, members) decided to honor the authors of two exceptional books: Susan Stokes of the University of Chicago for Mandates and Democracies: Neoliberalism by Surprise in Latin America (Cambridge University Press, 2001) and James Mahoney of Brown University for Legacies of Liberalism: Path Dependence and Political Regimes in Central America (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001).

Michael Foley delivered the following tributes to the award winners: “In Mandates and Democracy, Susan Stokes addresses a troubling puzzle about recent democatizations in Latin America: Why did politicians frequently campaign against neoliberal reform in presidential elections, only to reverse themselves soon after the elections? But she pushes the question further to ask about the implications for democracy and democratic theory of such mandate violations. Politicians violated their mandates for a variety of reasons: in some cases they concealed their true policy preferences because they were concerned that voters would turn against them. In others, international pressures post election persuaded leaders to adopt measures they had rejected before the contest. In both cases, though, Stokes reasons, politicians gambled on radical reform making voters’ lives better soon enough that they and their parties would not be punished for mandate violations. This book is exemplary for its mix of methods, using both contextually rich case studies and statistical analyses to understand mandate violations. And it integrates empirical and normative inquiry in a tightly reasoned look at the realities of electoral politics in democratizing countries. Stokes’ work will play a prominent role in the current debate on democratic consolidation, in particular, and democratic theory, more broadly.

“James Mahoney’s Legacies of Liberalism explores the puzzle of the divergent trajectories of the five nations of Central America. Initially united, each the scene of significant Liberal victories over nineteenth-century Latin American Conservatism, the five countries diverged significantly in their twentieth-century histories-from Costa Rica, Latin America’s exemplary liberal democracy, to Guatemala and El Salvador, wracked by brutal civil wars, to Nicaragua, which experienced one of Latin America’s few successful revolutions only to see the revolutionary party swept aside in elections in 1990. To account for such divergence, Mahoney takes a long look at the Liberal triumphs of the late nineteenth century and how they played out in each country. In doing so, he sharpens and refines the tools of comparative historical analysis while illuminating many of the persistent puzzles about the region, including, most troublingly, the intricate connection of liberalism and military authoritarianism in El Salvador and Guatemala. This book is an important contribution to a growing body of work employing comparative historical methods to unravel the paths that led to and away from democratization in the twentieth century.”

The Best Article award committee was chaired by Nicolas van de Walle of Michigan State University and included members Eva Bellin of Hunter College, Valerie Bunce of Cornell University, and Eric Thun of Princeton University. Mr. van de Walle announced that, “The committee has decided to award the prize for best journal article to Anirudh Krishna of Duke University for “Enhancing Political Participation in Democracies: What is the Role of Social Capital?” The article appeared in the May 2002 issue of Comparative Political Studies. There were a large number of excellent nominations, but the committee agreed that this essay was particularly deserving. In it, Krishna reports on a remarkable new data set he collected from rural India. The essay examines the political role of social capital in a nuanced and theoretically interesting manner, and shows that political participation is enhanced by the presence of social capital, in combination with certain political institutions. The new data set is a tremendous contribution, and the argument substantially advances our understanding of democracy in developing countries. Congratulations to Anirudh!”

Awards Committees for 2004 Annual Meeting: Section members are invited and encouraged to send nominations for next year’s awards to the committees listed below. (You may write to any or all three members of the respective committees.) To be eligible for the best book or best article awards, the book or article must have been published in calendar year 2003. To be eligible for the best paper award, the paper must have been presented at a panel organized by our section at the 2003 APSA annual meeting.

The best book award committee consists of Richard Vengroff, University of Connecticut (, chair; plus members Sharon Wolchik, George Washington University (, and Shaheen Mozaffar, Bridgewater State College (

The best article award committee consists of Valerie Bunce, Cornell University, (, chair; plus members Joseph Klesner, Kenyon College, (, and Gretchen Casper, Pennsylvania State University (

To submit a nomination for the best paper award, please write to Michael McFaul, Stanford University (, who served as program chair for the 2003 annual meeting.

Papers from the 2003 Annual Meeting: Papers presented at the 2003 APSA annual meeting are available at Papers from the 2002 APSA annual meeting are still available at

Proposing a Paper or Panel for the 2004 APSA annual meeting: The theme for panels sponsored by the Comparative Democratization section for the 2004 APSA meeting is “Illiberal Democracy and Liberal Autocracy.” Section members who wish to organize panels, to present papers, or to volunteer to serve as discussants should visit and click on “Proposal Submission Guide.” You may also direct inquiries to Daniel Brumberg, 2004 program chair, at

Please note, however, that all paper or panel proposals must be submitted through the APSA Web site and that the deadline for all submissions is November 14, 2003 at 12:00 midnight Eastern Time.


Lisa Baldez has moved from Washington University in St. Louis to Dartmouth College, where she is an associate professor of government and Latin American, Latino, and Caribbean Studies. Her latest article, “Women’s Movements and Democratic Transition in Brazil, Chile, East Germany, and Poland,” appeared in the April 2003 issue of Comparative Politics.

Nancy Bermeo, professor of politics, Princeton University, edited Who Governs Southern Europe? Regime Change and Ministerial Recruitment, 1850-2000 with Pedro Tavares de Almeida and António Costa Pinto, both of the University of Lisbon. The book (published by Frank Cass in 2003) is a comprehensive empirical study of ministerial elites over the past 150 years in liberal, authoritarian, and democratic political settings.

Archie Brown, professor of politics, Oxford University, has been elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in the Class of 2003. He is the only foreign scholar to be thus honored this year by the Political Science, International Relations, and Public Policy Section.

Rebecca Bill Chavez, assistant professor of political science, United States Naval Academy, contributed an article entitled “The Construction of the Rule of Law in Argentina: A Tale of Two Provinces” to the July issue of Comparative Politics. The article juxtaposes the development of judicial autonomy and legitimacy in the neighboring Argentine provinces of Mendoza and San Luis, which have had quite different trajectories since the 1983 transition to democracy.

William Crotty, Thomas P. O’Neill Professor of political science, Northeastern University, edited The Politics of Terror: The US Response to 9/11 (Northeastern University Press, 2003), a collection of essays on how a democracy can balance legitimate homeland security concerns with the rights and freedoms of its citizens.

Venelin Ganev, assistant professor of political science, Miami University, was recently awarded a Hoover National Fellowship. He is spending the current academic year at the Hoover Institution, where he is conducting a research project entitled “Postcommunist Political Capitalism: Theoretical and Comparative Aspects.”

Amaney Jamal recently assumed a new position as assistant professor of politics, Princeton University, where she teaches politics of the Middle East and political development. She is also writing a book entitled Democratic Citizens in Non-Democratic Nations: Civic and Associational Life in the Middle East.

Debra Javeline, assistant professor of political science at Rice University, has been awarded a Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Scholarship at Harvard University. The program enables a small number of economists, political scientists, and sociologists to undertake a two-year fellowship to study health and health policy from the perspectives of the three disciplines. Professor Javeline recently completed Protest and the Politics of Blame: The Russian Response to Unpaid Wages (University of Michigan Press, 2003). Her article, “The Role of Blame in Collective Action: Evidence from Russia,” appeared in the February 2003 American Political Science Review. Both studies attempt to explain the absence of large scale protests over late or unpaid wages, a problem that is estimated to affect almost 70 percent of the Russian workforce.

Cindy R. Jebb, academy professor and director of comparative politics, United States Military Academy (USMA), published “The Fight for Legitimacy: Liberal Democracy Versus Terrorism” in the Spring 2003 issue of the Journal of Conflict Studies. Professor Jebb and Ruth Beitler, adjunct professor, USMA, also wrote “Egypt as a Failing State: Implications for U.S. National Security” (Institute for National Security Studies, Occasional Paper # 51, July 2003).

Charles D. Kenney, assistant professor of political science, University of Oklahoma, contributed a chapter entitled “Horizontal Accountability: Concepts and Conflicts” to Democratic Accountability in Latin America (Oxford University Press, 2003). The book, edited by Scott Mainwaring and Christopher Welna, addresses how democratic leaders in Latin America can improve accountability while simultaneously promoting governmental effectiveness.

Catherine H. Keyser, associate professor of political science at Drew University, was recently appointed department chair, where she continues to teach courses in comparative, East Asian, and Chinese politics.

Carl LeVan, Ph.D. candidate at the University of California, San Diego, is a visiting scholar at the University of Ibadan in Nigeria for the current academic year, where he is completing dissertation research on a Fulbright grant.

Laura Luehrmann, assistant professor of political science; and December Green, associate professor of political science, both of Wright State University, published Comparative Politics of the Third World: Linking Concepts and Cases (Lynne Rienner, 2003). Professor Luehrmann also received Wright University’s Presidential Award for Faculty Excellence in Early Career Achievement.

Cynthia McClintock, professor of political science and international affairs, George Washington University; and Fabian Vallas wrote The United States and Peru: Cooperation-at a Cost (Routledge, 2002), a study of the international response to Peru’s rigged 2000 elections. The authors argue that although the U.S. government established a cooperative relationship with Peru’s Fujimori regime on security threats, free-market reform, and narcotics control, it nonetheless failed to place a high priority on democracy and human rights.

Shaheen Mozaffar, professor of politics, Bridgewater State College; James Scarritt, professor of political science emeritus, University of Colorado at Boulder; and Glen Galaich, Human Rights Watch, published an article entitled “Electoral Institutions, Ethnopolitical Cleavages, and Party Systems in Africa’s Emerging Democracies” in the August 2003 issue of the American Political Science Review. Professor Mozaffar presented two papers at the 2003 International Political Science Association World Congress in Durban: “Institutions, Context, and Party Systems in Africa” and “Ethnopolitical Cleavages and Democratic Stability in Africa” (the latter of which he wrote with Donald Rothchild). And he presented a paper entitled “How Context Mediates the Effects of Electoral Institutions on the Structure of Party System” at the 2003 APSA meeting in Philadelphia.

Sima Osdoby has been serving since June 2003 as a civil society consultant to the Organization for Security and Cooperation Mission to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Based in Sarajevo, Ms. Osdoby is working to develop and implement a civil society program for the Mission. She invites section members who have taught or conducted research in the region to write her at

Melanie Ram, research associate at the Institute for Russian and Eurasian Studies, George Washington University, published “Democratization through European Integration: The Case of Minority Rights in the Czech Republic and Romania” in the Summer 2003 issue of Comparative International Development. She and Thomas T. Holyoke, assistant professor of political science, Hastings College, presented a paper entitled “From the Sidelines to the Headlines: How the Roma Gained a Voice in European Politics” at the 2003 APSA annual meeting. Ms. Ram recently received an International Research and Exchanges Board short-term travel grant that will allow her to visit Romania in March 2004 to conduct field research on the Roma and transnational networks.

William Reisinger and Vicki L. Hesli, professors of political science, University of Iowa, edited The 1999-2000 Elections in Russia: Their Legacy and Impact (Cambridge University Press, 2003), a collection of essays by area specialists on the parliamentary and presidential elections that terminated the Yeltsin era and voted in the leadership of Vladimir Putin.

Sebastián Royo, assistant professor of government, Suffolk University; and Paul C. Manuel, professor of politics, St. Anselm’s College, edited Spain and Portugal in the European Union: The First Fifteen Years (Frank Cass, 2003).

Sherrill Stroschein, assistant professor of political science, Ohio University, has been appointed a Harvard Academy Scholar for 2003-2005 at the Weatherhead Center for International Affairs, Harvard University. She will conduct research on ethnic mobilization and the democratic transition in East Central Europe, and on multiethnic states in an integrated Europe.

Judith Torney-Purta, professor of human development at University of Maryland, was honored by the American Psychological Association’s International Psychology Division for her survey of 140,000 adolescents in 29 countries, 11 of them postcommunist countries. She also received an International Mentor Award for her work with young scholars while involved with the ten-year IEA Civic Education Study. An article based on this research entitled “A Cross-National Analysis of Political and Civic Involvement Among Adolescents,” written with Jo-Ann Amadeo of the University of Maryland, appeared in the April 2003 issue of PS: Political Science and Politics.

Tatu Vanhanen, professor of political science emeritus, University of Tampere in Finland, recently completed Democratization: A Comparative Analysis of 170 Countries. Published by Routledge in 2003, the book uses data from the 1850s to the present to investigate the causes of democracy, focusing especially on the relationship between indicators of resource distribution and democratization.

Yanlai Wang, associate researcher at the University of Limerick’s Euro-Asia Centre, wrote China’s Economic Development and Democratization (Ashgate, 2003), a study of China’s transformation that uses an analysis of the ruling elite’s policy institutionalization to answer whether that country’s economic reforms and development will lead to meaningful political reforms, freedom, and democracy.


CDATS Fellowship Competition: The Center for Democracy and the Third Sector (CDATS) at Georgetown University ( invites applications for its second annual visiting fellowship competition for the 2004-2005 academic year. Fellowships will provide support for scholars, researchers, and specialists with experience equivalent to a Ph.D. to pursue research on all aspects of the relationship between, and interactions among, democratic governance and the third sector. The third sector encompasses those parts of civil society that are neither government nor business, including associations, nongovernmental organizations, nonprofit organizations, advocacy groups, citizen groups, and social and cultural movements. CDATS invites applications from postdoctoral scholars in the social sciences at any career state. The deadline for receipt of applications is January 15, 2004. For further information and to download an application for this year’s fellowship, please see: Any questions should be sent to


As mentioned in the August newsletter, the 2003 World Congress of the International Political Science Association was held in Durban, South Africa from June 29 to July 4. (For more information, visit The meeting included a large number of panels on democracy. The listing is much too long to insert here; for those who are interested, it is attached as a file entitled “IPSA 2003 panels on democracy.”
On September 10-12, representatives of more than 100 national governments met in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, at the Fifth International Conference of New and Restored Democracies. For more information see the conference Web site at, or visit the UN Mongolia Web site at

The Foreign Policy Research Institute (Philadelphia) and the Institute of International Relations (Taipei) cosponsored a conference entitled “Democratization (and its Limits) in Greater China: Implications for Governance and Security in East Asia” on September 18-19, 2003. The meeting was held at the Law School of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. For more information, please visit:

The European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR) held its second annual conference in Marburg, Germany from September 18-21, 2003. The conference featured academic panel sessions, roundtables, and keynote addresses on many topics in political science. (For an agenda and panel listing, visit

The ECPR includes two organized sections that focus specifically on democracy. (Other sections also featured papers on democracy as part of regional or topical panels.) The “Democratic Peace” section sponsored seven panels on such topics as “What Do We Know about the Democratic Peace?”, “Are Democracies More Peaceful?”, “Democracy, International Organization, and the Peaceful Settlement of International Conflict,” and “Democratization and Political Violence in and between States.” (Visit for full participant listings and papers.) The “Democracy and Extremism” section sponsored ten panels that examined the primary challenges to liberal democracy and how liberal democracies defend themselves. (Papers and participant listings are available

In addition, Leonardo Morlino, director of the Italian Centre for European Studies, moderated a symposium on “The Quality of Democracy: Single Country States and Multi-Country Organizations,” which examined the concept of the quality of democracy at both theoretical and practical levels. One paper from the symposium-“The Quality of Democracies in Europe as Measured by Current Indicators of Democratization and Good Governance” by Dirk Berg-Schlosser of Philipps University, Marburg-is available at


The 2003 annual meeting of the African Studies Association will be held from October 30-November 2 at the Sheraton Boston Hotel in Boston. The theme of the meeting will be “Youthful Africa in the Twenty-first Century.” Panel sessions will examine, among many other topics, the role of young people in resisting authoritarian governments and in promoting democratic change. For more information, visit

The 2003 annual meeting of the Middle East Studies Association will be held from November 6-9 at the Hilton Anchorage and Egan Convention Center in Anchorage, Alaska. For more information, visit

The 35th national convention of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies will be held in Toronto, Ontario from November 20-23. For more information, visit

The 2004 annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association will be held from January 8-10 at the Inter-Continental Hotel in New Orleans, Louisiana. For more information, visit


The Autumn 2003 issue (Volume 10, no. 3) of Democratization features studies of Mexico, Chile, Brazil, the Philippines, South Korea, and Ukraine, as well as articles on civil society, democratic decay, and the European Union. For abstracts of the articles listed below, visit

“Rethinking Civil Society” by Petr Kopecky and Cas Mudde

“Democratizing a Hegemonic Regime: From Institutionalized Party to Institutionalized Party System in Mexico?” by Darren Wallis

“Local Democracy and Popular Participation: Chile and Brazil in Comparative Perspective” by Paul W. Posner

“Legislative Powers, Veto Players and the Emergence of Delegative Democracy: A Comparison of Presidentialism in the Philippines and South Korea” by Aurel Croissant

“The Rise of the Ukrainian Oligarchs” by Rosaria Puglisi

“The Economic Transition in Central Asia: Implications for Democracy” by John Glenn

“Responding to Democratic Decay and Crises of Governance: The European Union and the Convention of Cotonou” by Carlos Santiso

“Boundaries beyond Borders: Delineating Democratic ‘Peoples’ in a Globalizing World” by Terry MacDonald

Journal of Democracy
The October 2003 (Volume 14, no. 4) issue of the Journal of Democracy features a five-article symposium entitled “Making Sense of the European Union” plus articles on secularism in India, the military and democracy in Pakistan, and what Europe means for Poland, plus studies of electoral systems and civic education. The issue also includes a review of Fareed Zakaria’s The Future of Freedom: Illiberal Democracy at Home and Abroad by Larry Diamond. For selected online articles and the tables of contents of all Journal issues, visit

“Reviving Middle Eastern Liberalism” by Saad Eddin Ibrahim
For about a century after 1850, the Middle East enjoyed an imperfect yet real “Liberal Age.” The roots of some of the key institutions of that era remain today. Can they be nurtured into a second spring?

“The Crisis of Indian Secularism” by Sumit Ganguly
The principled separation of religious from political claims upon which Indian democracy depends may not be dead, but it is ailing badly. How did things reach this pass, and what is the prognosis for recovery?

“Pakistan’s “Armored” Democracy” by Aqil Shah
Four years after his bloodless coup, Pervez Musharraf is executing a military “exit strategy” from politics that involves lots in the way of problematic strategy and little in the way of real exit from political power.

Making Sense of the EU

I. “Competing Goals, Conflicting Perspectives” by Marc F. Plattner
Is the EU an international organization, an emerging federal state, something in between, or something altogether different? So far it has managed to survive and prosper despite all the disagreements about its true nature, but for how long can it continue to do so?

II. “The Achievements of the Convention” by Yves Mény
Building democracy at the supernational level is an unprecedented task, but so once was building democracy at the level of the modern state. And the progress of the EU in the last half-century has been remarkable.

III. “Democracy in Europe and Europe’s Democratization” by Philippe C. Schmitter
Europe faces a potentially dangerous “double bind”: The legitimacy of domestic democracy in the member states is waning, and citizens are increasingly unhappy with the EU’s lack of accountability-but the new draft Constitution fails to address the problem.

IV. “Toward a Cosmopolitan Europe” by Jürgen Habermas
The EU represents an opportunity not only to fashion a postnational welfare state capable of responding to a postnational economy, but to lay a groundwork that will ultimately make possible a global domestic policy.

V. “The Challenge for Democracy” by Ralf Dahrendorf
The EU was founded partly for the purpose of strengthening democracy, but it has been created in a way that is intrinsically not democratic.

“Electoral Systems: A Primer for Decision Makers” by Donald L. Horowitz
The rules that govern voting will always be of vital importance in any democracy. The beginning of wisdom is to turn from the usual focus on electoral systems in order to reflect on larger goals and the trade-offs among them that may be necessary.

“What Europe Means for Poland” by Adam Michnik
The famed former dissident reflects on the lessons learned from Poland’s transformation, the anxieties that continue to beset his country, and the hopes and fears that attend its return to Europe.

“Can Democracy Be Taught?” by Steven E. Finkel
Civic education can enhance democratic values and participation among adults in young democracies, but the training must be frequent and participatory. Otherwise adult civic education may not be worth doing.

“Argentina Weathers the Storm” by Steven Levitsky and María Victoria Murillo
In the wake of its recent crisis, Argentina can move from survival to stability only if it responds to demands for institutional change in a way that strengthens the country’s institutions over the long term.


This section of the newsletter features selected articles that appeared in journals received by the NED’s Democracy Resource Center.

American Political Science ReviewVol. 97, no. 3, August 2003
“Electoral Institutions, Ethnopolitical Cleavages, and Party Systems in Africa’s Emerging Democracies” by Shaheen Mozaffar, James R. Scarritt, and Glen Galaich

“Democracy, Inequality, and Inflation” by Raj M. Desai, Anders Olofsgård, and Tarik M. Yousef Asian SurveyVol. XLIII, no. 4, July/August 2003
“The Empowering Effect of Village Elections in China” by Lianjiang Li

“Change and Continuity in the Thai Political Party System” by James Ockey

“The Role of NGOs in Political Elections in South Korea: The Case of the Citizens’ Alliance for the 2000 General Election” by Eui Hang Shin

China JournalIssue 50, July 2003
“China’s Fourth Generation: The New Rulers and the Secret Files” by Alfred L. Chan

“Response” by Andrew J. Nathan and Bruce Gilley

China Quarterlyno. 174, June 2003
“China Since Tiananmen: The Politics of Transition” by Joseph Fewsmith. Reviewed by Steve Tsang.

“The Nature of Chinese Politics: From Mao to Jiang” edited by Jonathan Unger. Reviewed by Michael Schoenhals.

“The United States and China: Into the Twenty-First Century (Third Edition)” by Michael Schaller. Reviewed by Bruce J. Dickson.

Communist and Post-Communist StudiesVol. 36, no. 3, September 2003
“Does Public Opinion Matter in Ukraine? The Case of Foreign Policy” by Victor Chudowsky and Taras Kuzio

“The Foundations of the State: Emerging Urban-Rural Clevages in Transitions Countries” by Lars Johannsen

“Azerbaijan in Transition to the ‘New Age of Democracy'” by Alec Rasizade

“Polish Elites and Democratic Change, 1990-2002” by Jerzy J. Wiatr

Comparative Political StudiesVol. 36, no. 7, September 2003
“The Legacy of Apartheid: Racial Differences in the Legitimacy of Democratic Institutions and Processes in the New South Africa” by James L. Gibson

“Subnational Economic Voting: Electoral Choice in Argentina, 1983-1999” by Karen L. Remmer and François Gélineau

Comparative Political StudiesVol. 36, no. 8, October 2003
“Explaining Populist Party Adaptation in Latin America: Environmental and Organizational Determinants of Party Change in Argentina, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela” by Katrina Burgess and Steven Levitsky

“Electoral Systems and Party Formation in Russia: A Cross-Regional Analysis” by Grigorii V. Golosov

“Social Capital in (Dis)Similar Democracies: The Development of Generalized Trust in Japan and Switzerland” by Markus Freitag

“Banking on Reform: Political Parties and Central Bank Independence in the Industrial Democracies” by William Bernhard. Reviewed by Sylvia Maxfield

Contemporary Southeast AsiaVol. 25, no. 2, August 2003
“Blood, Sweat and Jihad: The Radicalization of the Political Discourse of the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) from 1982 Onwards” by Farish A. Noor

“Understanding the Philippines’ Economy and Politics since the Return of Democracy in 1986” by Daniel Joseph Ringuet and Elsa Estrada

“Globalization and Democratization in Asia: The Construction of Identity” edited by Catarina Kinnvall and Kristina Jönsoon. Reviewed by James Cotton.

Europe-Asia StudiesVol. 55, no. 5, July 2003
“Majorities without Mandates: the Russian Federation Council since 2000” by Thomas F. Remington

“Old and New Divisions of Polish Politics: Polish Parties’ Electoral Strategies and Bases of Support” by Aleks Szczerbiak

“The Left in Hungary and the 2002 Parliamentary Elections” by Barnabas Racz

Foreign AffairsVol. 82, no. 5, September/October 2003
“The Lingering Legacy of Tiananmen” by Robert M. Hathaway

Government and OppositionVol. 38, no. 1, Winter 2003
“Taken at the Flood? The German General Election 2002” by Geoffrey K. Roberts

Government and OppositionVol. 38, no. 2, Spring 2003
“Labour Politics and Democratic Transition in South Korea and Taiwan” by Paul G. Buchanan and Kate Nicholls

Government and OppositionVol. 38, no. 3, Summer 2003
“The Slovak Parliamentary Election of September 2002: Its Systemic Importance” by Geoffrey Pridham

“Hard Choices: The Future of Social Democracy” by Joseph Femia

Journal of Communist Studies and Transition Politics, Vol. 19, no. 2, June 2003
“The 2002 Parliamentary Elections in Ukraine: Democratization or Authoritarianism?” by Taras Kuzio

“Democracy in Eastern Europe: Consolidated, Different or Normal?” by George Sanford

Latin American Politics and SocietyVol. 45, no. 3, Fall 2003
“Democracy Without Parties? Political Parties and Regime Change in Fujimori’s Peru” by Steven Levitsky and Maxwell A. Cameron

“Democratic Governance and Social Inequality” edited by Joseph S. Tulchin and Amelia Brown. Reviewed by James W. McGuire

Middle East JournalVol. 57, no. 3, Summer 2003
“The Liberal Impulse in Saudi Arabia” by Richard Dekmejian

Middle East PolicyVol. X, no. 3, Fall 2003
“Prospects for Muslim Democracy: The Role of U.S. Policy” by Muqtedar Khan

Orbis: A Journal of World AffairsVol. 47, no. 4, 2003
“Beyond Civil Society: Promoting Democracy after September 11” by Omar G. Encarnación

Party PoliticsVol. 9, no. 4, July 2003
“Political Parties in a ‘No-Party Democracy’: Hegemony and Opposition Under ‘Movement Democracy’ in Uganda” by Giovanni M. Carbone

“Sub-National Sources of Multipartism in Parliamentary Elections: Evidence form Korea” by MyoungHo Park

Political Science QuarterlyVol. 118, no. 2, Summer 2003
“Robert Mugabe, Another Too-Long Serving African Ruler: A Review Essay” by Norma J. Kriger

Washington QuarterlyVol. 26, no. 4, Autumn 2003
“Will Iran’s Regime Change Next: Continuous Regime Change from Within” by Ali M. Ansari

World PoliticsVol. 55, no. 3, April 2003
“Clientelism and Voting Behavior: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Benin” by Leonard Wantchekon

World QuarterlyVol. 24, no. 4, August 2003 
“Demography and Transfer: Israel’s Road to Nowhere” by Elia Zureik

“Revising the Democratic Revolution-into the Americas” by Peter Wilkin



A Grand Strategy for America. By Robert J. Art. Cornell University Press, 2003. 320 pp.

The Lost Promise of Patriotism: Debating American Identity, 1890-1920. By Jonathan M. Hansen. University of Chicago Press, 2003. 255 pp.

Women’s Movements Facing the Reconfigured State. Edited by Lee Ann Banaszak, Karen Beckwith, and Dieter Rucht. Cambridge University Press, 2003. 350 pp.

Workways of Governance: Monitoring Our Government’s Health. Edited by Roger H. Davidson. Brookings Institution, 2003. 177 pp.


Cameroon: Politics and Society in Critical Perspectives. Edited by Jean-Germain Gros. University Press of America, 2003. 238 pp.

Pan-African History: Political Figures from Africa and the Diaspora since 1787. By Hakim Adi and Marika Sherwood. Routledge, 2003. 203 pp.


China’s Techno-Warriors: National Security and Strategic Competition from the Nuclear to the Information Age. By Evan A. Feigenbaum. Stanford University Press, 2003. 339 pp.

Chinese Military Power. By Harold Brown, Joseph W. Prueher, and Adam Segal. Council on Foreign Relations, 2003. 94 pp.

Indonesia Commission: Peace and Progress in Papua. By Dennis C. Blair and David L. Phillips. Council on Foreign Relations, 2003. 124 pp.

Kings, Country and Constitutions: Thailand’s Political Development 1932-2000. By Kobkua Suwannathat-Pian. RoutledgeCurzon, 2003. 276 pp.


After Communism: Perspectives on Democracy. Edited by Donald R. Kelley. The University of Arkansas Press, 2003. 304 pp.

Caspian Oil Windfalls: Who Will Benefit? By Svetlana Tsalik. Open Society Institute, 2003. 211 pp.

Comrades No More: The Seeds of Change in Eastern Europe. By Renee de Nevers. MIT Press, 2003. 305 pp.

Developments in Central and East European Politics. Edited by Stephen White, Judy Batt, and Paul G. Lewis. Duke University Press, 2003. 320 pp.

The Left Transformed in Post-Communist Societies: The Cases of East-Central Europe, Russia, and Ukraine. Edited by Jane Leftwich Curry and Joan Barth Urban. Rowman and Littlefield, 2003. 284 pp.

Making and Breaking Democratic Transitions: The Comparative Politics of Russia’s Regions. By Vladimir Gelman, Sergei Ryzhenkov, and Michael Brie, with Vladimir Avdonin, Boris Ovchinnikov, and Igor Semenov. Rowman and Littlefield, 2003. 310 pp.

Politics and the Russian Army: Civil-Military Relations, 1689-2000. By Brian D. Taylor. Cambridge University Press, 2003. 355 pp.

Russia’s Road to Deeper Democracy. By Tom Bjorkman. Brookings Institution, 2003. 141 pp.

The Weakness of Civil Society in Post-Communist Europe. By Marc Morjé Howard. Cambridge University Press, 2003. 206 pp.


Democracy in Latin America 1760-1900: Volume I, Civic Selfhood and Public Life in Mexico and Peru. By Carlos A. Forment. University of Chicago Press, 2003. 454 pp.

Democracy in Latin America: Surviving Conflict and Crisis. By George Philip. Polity, 2003. 221 pp.

Governing Latin America. By Joe Foweraker, Todd Landman, and Neil Harvey. Polity, 2003. 243 pp.

Latin America in the 21st Century: Toward a New Sociopolitical Matrix. By Manuel Antonío Garreton, Marcelo Cavarozzi, Peter S. Cleaves, Gary Gereffi, and Jonathan Hartlyn. North-South Center, 2003. 148 pp.

Sex and the State: Abortion, Divorce, and the Family Under Latin American Dictatorships and Democracies. By Mala Htun. Cambridge University Press, 2003. 219 pp.

Social Policy Reform and Market Governance in Latin America. Edited by Louise Haggh and Camilla T. Helgo. Palgrave Macmillan, 2002. 279 pp.


American Muslims: Bridging Faith and Freedom. By M.A. Muqtedar Khan. Amana, 2002. 194 pp.

Covering the Intifada: How the Media Reported the Palestinian Uprising. By Joshua Muravchik. Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 2003. 125 pp.

Liberalization Against Democracy: The Local Politics of Economic Reform in Tunisia. By Stephen J. King. Indiana University Press, 2003. 161 pp.

Rethinking Islamist Politics: Culture, the State and Islamism. By Salwa Ismail. I.B. Tauris, 2003. 256 pp.


Ancient Greek Democracy: Readings and Sources. Edited by Eric W. Robinson. Blackwell, 2003. 326 pp.

Breaking the Real Axis of Evil: How to Oust the World’s Last Dictators by 2025. By Mark Palmer. Rowman and Littlefield, 2003. 348 pp.

Democracy: A Comparative Approach. By Jan-Erik Lane and Svante Ersson. Routledge, 2003. 306 pp.

Democracy and Redistribution. By Carles Boix. Cambridge University Press, 2003. 264 pp.

Democracy and the Rule of Law. Edited by José María Maravall and Adam Przeworski. Cambridge University Press, 2003. 321 pp.

Democracy as Public Deliberation: New Perspectives. Edited by Maurizio Passerin d’Entr`eves. Manchester University Press, 2003. 228 pp.

Democracy: Government of the People or Government of the Politicians? By José Nun. Rowman and Littlefield, 2003. 151 pp.

Democracy: Key Concepts. By Michael Saward. Polity, 2003. 175 pp.

Democracy: The Greatest Good for the Greatest Number. Edited by Maryann Zihala. University Press of America, 2002. 167 pp.

Emergent Publics: An Essay on Social Movements and Democracy. By Ian Angus. Arbeiter Ring, 2001. 102 pp.

Empire Lite: Nation Building in Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan. By Michael Ignatieff. Vintage, 2003. 96 pp.

Ethnicity. By Steve Fenton. Polity, 2003. 220 pp.

Freedom or Security: The Consequences for Democracies Using Emergency Powers to Fight Terror. By Michael Freeman. Praeger, 2003. 218 pp.

Law, Pragmatism, and Democracy. By Richard A. Posner. Harvard University Press, 2003. 398 pp.

Political Transition: Politics and Cultures. Edited by Paul Gready. Pluto, 2003. 301 pp.

The Politics of Social Risk: Business and Welfare State Development. By Isabela Mares. Cambridge University Press, 2003. 319 pp.

Rationalizing Capitalist Democracy: The Cold War Origins of Rational Choice Liberalism. By S.M. Amadae. University of Chicago Press, 2003. 401 pp.

Reliable Partners: How Democracies Have Made a Separate Peace. By Charles Lipson. Princeton University Press, 2003. 259 pp.

The Remains of the North: Liberalism, History, and Legal Theory. By Adekemi Odujirin. University Press of America, 2003. 240 pp.

Republicanism in the Modern World. By John W. Maynor. Polity, 2003. 230 pp.

Sovereign Nations, Carnal States. By Kam Shapiro. Cornell University Press, 2003. 186 pp.

States, Parties, and Social Movements. Edited by Jack A. Goldstone. Cambridge University Press, 2003. 287 pp.

Tocqueville Unveiled: The Historian and His Sources for The Old Regime and the Revolution. By Robert T. Gannett, Jr. University of Chicago Press, 2003. 246 pp.